use 6 points peer reply step 2 W r i t i n g

use 6 points peer reply step 2 W r i t i n g


Step 1: Post your response to the following:

  1. Based on your own opinion, discuss Hirschi’s four elements of social bonding theory in order of importance. Explain how each element is interconnected.
  2. Gottfredson and Hirschi contend that “many of the traditional causes of crime are in fact consequences of low self-control.” Explain what this means and why it is important. 
  3. Include your own overall question that you had about the readings. 


  1. Your response to each question should be a minimum of 400 words each, answer all parts of the prompt, use proper APA citation style, and is due Friday by 11:59 pm (CA time).
  2. Your question to the class is not required to meet the 400 word count. However, you are expected to give enough information to explain why you are asking your question. 
  3. Demonstrate written communication skills by using complete paragraphs, accurate grammar, and proper mechanics.
  4. Draw from the readings and other course content to answer the questions. This means that you are expected to include direct references to the assigned chapter as well as other relevant course content. 
  5. Review APA in-text and reference citations here: (Links to an external site.) 

This is the book:Valenzuela, Sylvia, Paul Kaplan, and Stuart Henry (2013). Crime and Behavior. Cognella Press.

i attached the powerpoint that u can use 

6 Points


Step 2: Read all other posts. Respond to the posts of at least two students.

  • In your responses, you can agree or disagree with your classmates, but if differences of opinion occur, provide examples to support your opinions.
  • You are expected to use APA citation style. 
  • Draw from the readings and other course content to reply to your peers. This means that you are expected to include direct references to the assigned chapter as well as other relevant course content. 
  • Reply posts should be at least 200 words each and are due Sunday by 11:59pm (CA time)

Valenzuela, Sylvia, Paul Kaplan, and Stuart Henry (2013). Crime and Behavior. Cognella Press.

reply 1 Hirschi’s Four Elements of Social Bonding TheoryFour of Hirsch’s social bonding theory elements entail control and when control can be employed to change lives. These control elements include commitment, attachment, belief, and involvement (Bourdieu et al., 2019). Control is all about child upbringing and socialization. In my opinion, delinquent behavior depends on rearing the child and the people who interact with the kids.First, involvement in a condition of participating in a crucial element of control. When people are involved in activities that spend most of their time, it prevents them from thinking and doing other wrong things. These activities may be employment, family, school, church, sports, leisure, or other religious activities. Research shows that academic and religious activities are the highest-ranked for preventing engagement in crime or wrong things. Simultaneously, dating and sports avenues are the most rated place where more risky behaviors are obtained.Belief is the recognition of the existent of something. It may be faith, trust, or confidence in someone or something. The belief in morality about the community’s rules and laws is the right track where individuals are encouraged to follow. The belief that laws and regulations are there only to keep the society in place is inevitable. The other element is attachment, an emotional bond between infant and primary caregiver, or an enduring emotional connection that progresses between one adult and another in a closer relationship. This is the basis of all (Ratzinger, 2016). In attachment, one can develop the attitudes of becoming either an evil person or a good. If the caregiver brought up the kid using the wrong measures, the infant would learn the same way.Lastly, commitment is the state of actuality dedicated to a cause of action. When people are  committed to a certain goal, it pushes them towards achieving it. Commitment is a major element in controlling crime. For example, a committed driver cannot drive carelessly because they have someone to take care of. Marriage commitment can make one be more responsible and committed. In my opinion, child-rearing involves a cluster of attitudes, narrative, standing, feelings, and personality. These elements of social bonding are interconnected in all directions because they involve control of behavior. Belief is connected to involvement because they involve religious activities, while commitment is matched with the attachment, they are involved with social interactions like sports.Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) Self-control TheoryLow self-control, especially in crime control, has attracted a lot of attention in scientific disciplines. Lack of self-control and exercising self-control is part of human life. Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory, also known as the general crime theory, governs the sociological view of self-control. For instance, the two social-control theorists affirm, “many of the traditional causes of crime are in fact consequences of low self-control.” What does this mean? Does it have any significance to your understanding of crime and crime control? Throughout this discussion, I will focus not only on the link between the sociological perspective of crime and self-control but also on seeking answers to the questions mentioned above.According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, criminality is tantamount to self-control. It defines a person’s propensities to commit a crime. The idea that is more inherent to criminality concepts is that a person with high criminality levels is more likely to engage in criminal acts. However, on several occasions, low-self-control does not due to the variability of other social influences (Schulz, 2006). Criminal and noncriminal events result from perusing immediate, certain, and easy benefits,and thus criminal actions are a manifestation of low-self-control.The distinction between criminality and crime is key in understanding the statement and Gottfredson and Hirschi’s position on offender versatility versus specialization. By versatility, I think that Gottfredson and Hirschi mean that we commit a wide range of crimes, and we do not have strong inclinations to pursue a specific act or pattern (DeLisi & Vaughn, 2008). Therefore, no specific action, a form of deviance, or type of crime is uniquely need by the lack of self-control. Self-control theory and the statement propose that crime class and comparable actions are relatively high in people with low self-control. Within the crime domain, however, there is much versatility in criminal actions we engage in. in short, the statement and the self-control theory at large indicate that low self-control individuals are likely to engage in crime opportunities presented before them regardless of the type of crime as crime has an immediate gratification. Therefore, the statement indicates that offenders are versatile and are less likely to specialize in a particular offense.Self-control theory and Gottfredson and Hirschi’s statement emphasize that we are born with low self-control, and society, particularly caregivers, should make us social and functional beings. The statement can also make us foresee the long-term consequences of our actions, thereby giving room to pursue goals, cooperation, and overall continuity of an orderly society. When we fail to address some social issues, our behaviors are shaped by opportunities. There is a need to address physical and biological factors while addressing crime.QuestionIs self-control theory the grand theory if crime and criminality? I am asking this question because the theory strikes in size and claim. In more than 20 years, this theory has occupied a central place in criminal thoughts, challenged beliefs, and inspired a notable amount of research work, and provoked further debates on versatility, stability, policies, and cause of crime. For these reasons, I can confidently say the theory holds a key position in crime studies. Also, I believe that new generations studying criminology are familiar with its implications and ideas.reply 2 Among Hirschi’s four elements of social bond theory, I think attachment is the most important elements, then, involvement, belief, and commitment are in order as important. When we were talking about Panzram story in discussion like 2 weeks ago, I was explaining about the importance of attachment. Observing the reactions or behaviors of infants about the presence and absences of their caregivers and handing their distress is the way of the research of attachment. As we learned about attachment in this chapter, not only all other factors are depending on attachment, but it also important to whom one is attached. Although personalities and characteristics can be influenced and developed by environment, attachment is the first step of social bonding with caregivers in early childhood, I believe that it is the most important elements of social bond theory. Then, I was thinking which one is more important between belief and involvement. In my opinion, involvement can be more influenced than belief especially when people commit the crime. Most people have moral beliefs or standard of fulfilling laws and rules of society. However, it depends on how deeply a person was involved in the situation, he can easily commit a crime or even acting out over his belief. For example, a teenager has moral beliefs such as respecting a teacher, but if his peer forces to disrespect the teacher, he will do it inevitably. Although he has a standard respecting teacher, he doesn’t want to be deported from his peers. That’s why I believe involvement is over belief in social bond theory. Lastly, every person may imagine to do something unusual behaviors, however, actually doing things like commitment is rarely happen. It relies on a person’s will. For instance, unfortunately, I guess that many people think about suicide due to difficulties of the lives, but some people may commit suicide, and a few people actually are dying by suicide. I would like to emphasize the willingness of a person whether he can do it actually or not. Based on how a child attached to his caregiver, how easily he can be influenced by society. Although he has a strong belief in his mind, if he is a vulnerable due to weak attachment, he can be easily involved and committed behaviors by someone and society.First of all, low self-control means a person has little control over himself. According to the question, Gottfredson and Hirschi contend that “many of the traditional causes of crimes are in fact consequences of low self-control, another way to understand is many crimes take place because of low self-control. In our textbook (p103, 2013), an offender who has a low self-control, are willing to commit the crime impulsively which can be traced easily. This means crime can be prevented easily with their satisfaction of everyday in lives. Textbook mentioned that security in parking lots or apartments can decrease crimes such as theft and vandalism (2013). Hence, If there is someone around a person who has low self-control, he can prevent immediate deviant behaviors and control his behaviors in order to prevent a crime.Overall, I believe that just a small encouragement phrase from a stranger even can console a person. We don’t know who has low self-control unless acquaintance, or we observe strangers, how can we prevent some crimes from them not to be involved, but make them aware or help them increase their self-control?

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