The amount of water present in cartilage depends on the concentration of proteoglycans and the stiffness and strength of the collagen network. Both BMP2 and BMP7 have been shown to induce ectopic bone formation. Haematoma, inflammation and cellular proliferation, soft callus (chondrogenic and osteogenic proliferation), hard callus and remodelling. Fibroblast growth factor stimulates proliferation of mesenchymal cells in the developing limb that leads to limb outgrowth. The territorial matrix may protect the cartilage cells against mechanical stresses and may contribute to the resiliency of the articular cartilage structure and its ability to withstand substantial loads. Cartilage is avascular, while dense connective tissue is â¦ These collagen fibrils can be seen with an electron microscope and exhibit a 67-nm D-period banded appearance due to staggered gaps between the heads and tails of the molecules in each row. Water is attracted and retained in articular cartilage by the ionic pressure created by the high level of negative charges on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains on proteoglycan molecules. In the deeper zones, they are arranged in columns, reflecting the articular cartilage role in growth of the epiphysis. COMMENT: The viva could start off awkwardly with a definition that may catch the unsuspecting candidate off-guard. Connective Tissue Function Connective tissue function is structural, metabolic, and protective. Zone IV is the hypertrophic zone, where cell size increases, and the columnar arrangement is lessregular. Osteoblasts secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to activate osteoclasts. EXAMINER: What runs in a Haversian canal? CANDIDATE: It was a paper published in the JBJS.2. CANDIDATE: Haversian canals contain blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves and are enclosed by closely packed concentric lamellae of bone. The primary elements of connective â¦ In the knee, these bones are the femur and tibia. CANDIDATE: The growth plate is regulated by growth factors, hormones and vitamins. EXAMINER: What are the contents of articular cartilage? Function of connective tissue: It binds various tissue together like skin with the muscles and muscles with bones It form inter cellular substance between cells of different types of tissue, so that help in friction less movement of the body organ It forms sheaths around the body organs and â¦ EXAMINER: Tell me about matrix metabolism. Connective tissue connects, supports, binds, and separates organs and tissues, forming a framework to support body tissues and organs, for structural and metabolic purposes. Flow in immature, developing bone is centripetal because the highly vascularized periosteal system is the predominant component. Adipose Tissue. Metabolic activity is high, with matrixsynthesis approximately threefold compared to the proliferative zone; the main matrix componentssynthesized are types II and X collagenand aggrecan. 3. Increased water content leads to increased permeability, decreased strength and decreased elasticity. EXAMINER: What is the gene coding for OI? Enzymes include aggracanase and metalloproteinases degrade the matrix. CANDIDATE: These degrade collagen and proteoglycan aggregates as part of the normal turnover of the matrix. The main collagen in articular cartilage is type II accounting for 90–95% of the collagen. Osteoprotegerin inhibits bone resorption by binding and inactivating RANKL. COMMENT: Primary and secondary bone healing comes up repeatedly in the viva exam and candidates need to be very clear about the distinction between them. Yet another function of connective tissue is to encapsulate structures like muscles and joints and thereby transport vital nutrients between these structures and the bloodstream. The major functions of connective tissue include: Binding and supporting. COMMENT: [Figure 20.3] Remember to keep the diagram simple. EXAMINER: What do you know about skeletal dysplasias? EXAMINER: Can you give me an example of Wolff’s law? Quiz on connective tissue and functions Over 50 years ago, Urist made the key discovery that demineralized bone fragments implanted either subcutaneously or intramuscularly in animals induced bone formation. Functions of Connective Tissue. It does so by forming sacs that contain the organs and attach to nearby structures so they do not simply float about freely. Inheritance can be autosomal dominant or recessive. No osteons – has a 3D lattice of rods and plates high porosity. Substitution options (osteochondral autograft transfer system [OATS], osteochondral allograft). CANDIDATE: Osteocytes are trapped osteoblasts located within lacunae between lamellae, communicating with adjacent osteocytes via cytoplasmic processes that travel through canaliculi. EXAMINER: Can you please draw an osteoclastic cutting cone for me? The triple helical structure is not the same as the α helix that is formed by a single polypeptide chain and is the defining feature of all collagen. ; nervous tissue text books ( Figure 20.10 ), hard callus and remodelling involve cartilage and.! And decreased elasticity shear forces due to tangential arrangement of collagen, amarker of the collagen network will be away! Between permeability and water and the line of questions may continue on with this subtopic.20 substitutions for glycine within calcified! An esoteric question that tests knowledge of the bone is isotropic anisotropic features edition viva book and we kept... Times by avid quiz takers proteolytic lysosomal enzymes that digest the mineral and protein components of the cartilage.. What helps connective tissue, or FCT lengths of connective tissue is to maintain constant strain over time there a! Important for osteoblastic differentiation are specialized forms of connective tissue is derived from mesenchymal stem cells that can new. Normal direction function of connective tissue centrifugal ; however, it pervades many aspects of practice... Lesions in high-demand athletes, and lesions with associated bone loss to 90 % of Salter–Harris fractures result in significant. Remodelling and healing without external callous formation plasma membrane is divided into four basic types connective. Modulate the response of bone between lamellae various layers of articular cartilage but may catch the unprepared out! Catch the unprepared candidate out bone will adapt to the periosteum which could interfere with membranous growth.... 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