personal interest situational interest expectancy value mastery goal W r i t i n g

personal interest situational interest expectancy value mastery goal W r i t i n g

Respond to any five of the following questions using at least one (1) paragraph in your response. You should plan your response so that a “naive reader” could understand what you are explaining, That means that you should write so that someone who knows nothing about this topic would understand your response to the question. You should also write as a person who is writing in an academic setting, using your best “wordsmithing” skills. When you quote from a source, including the text, you should cite your sources. Students who quote from the source must cite the source to get full points.

Question Pool: Choose 5 questions only 

  1. The textbook describes a number of cognitive factors affecting motivation. Briefly describe each of the following factors, giving a concrete example and explaining how you might promote it in a classroom or other applied setting.
    1. Personal interest
    2. Situational interest
    3. Expectancy
    4. Value
    5. Mastery goal
  2. In its discussion of motivation, the textbook describes mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals.
    1. In a short paragraph, explain how these three types of goals are different.
    2. Describe four ways in which students with mastery goals and those with performance goals (especially those with performance-avoidance goals) are likely to think and/or act differently.
    3. List three strategies you might use to promote mastery goals. Illustrate each one with a concrete example of something you might do.
  3. Perspectives such as behaviorism and social cognitive theory show us how the consequence (reinforcement or punishment) of a particular behavior affects the extent to which the behavior is likely to appear again. Attribution theory has cast a new light on this notion, maintaining that the consequences of behavior will affect each person’s learning and future behavior differently depending on how the individual interprets those consequences. Within the context of attribution theory:
    1. Explain what motivation theorists mean when they talk about attributions.
    2. Explain how learners’ responses to failure are likely to be different when they attribute that failure to a controllable cause or to an uncontrollable one. Give a concrete example to illustrate your explanation.
    3. Describe three specific strategies you might use to foster more productive attributions in others. In each case, use attribution theory to explain why you think the strategy should be effective.
  4. Explain each of the following situations using what you have learned about attributions.
    1. After a history of school failures, Marcus eventually stops trying to do well.
    2. A fifth-grade teacher gives her class a difficult mathematics test, and many of her students fail it. She tells her class that she will give them a different test over the same material tomorrow. Many of the boys in the class say they will go home and study again. Some of the girls say that they already studied once, and it didn’t do much good, so why bother?
    3. Samantha’s mother helps her study for an addition test on Tuesday and a subtraction test on Thursday. Samantha passes the Tuesday test and is quite proud of herself. She fails the Thursday test and blames her mother for not helping her enough.
  5. People’s attributions for themselves and for others depend on a variety of factors. Describe how one’s self-attributions may be partly a function of six of the following:
  • Age
  • Situational cues
  • History of success and failure
  • Messages from others
  • Culture
  • Gender
  • Self-protective bias
  • Image management

6. Describe the sequence through which, according to Deci and Ryan, motivation may become increasingly internalized over time. Use a concrete example to illustrate your discussion.

7. Many principles of motivation can be summed up with the mnemonic “TARGETS”: task, autonomy, recognition, grouping, evaluation, time, and social support. In seven paragraphs, describe seven strategies—one each related to each of the seven TARGETS variables—you might use to motivate students in a classroom. Illustrate each strategy with a specific, concrete example of what you might do

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