impactteen pregnancy obviously greatly impacts population health H e a l t h M e d i c a l
I’m working on a population health project and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
Information that needs to be included in the paper:
Here is the outline and topic info plus references that have been used so far:
Teen Pregnancy in Non-Hispanic Caucasian Females Ages 15-19 in The United States
Population Health Challenge Statement:
The U.S. ranks first among developed nations in teen pregnancy rates, in 2017 non-hispanic caucasian females had a rate of 13.2% (CDC, 2019).
CDC. Social Determinants and Eliminating Disparities in Teen Pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https:// Published October 15, 2019. Accessed October 26, 2020.
1. Barber JS, Yarger JE, Gatny HH. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women. Demography. 2015;52(3):751-786. doi:10.1007/s13524-015-0391-4
2. Horn B. Cultural beliefs and teenage pregnancy. Nurse Pract. 1983;8(8):35-74.
3. Murray J. Teen pregnancy: an international perspective. Plan Parent Rev. 1986;6(1):20-21.
4. Spear HJ, Lock S. Qualitative research on adolescent pregnancy: a descriptive review and analysis. J Pediatr Nurs. 2003;18(6):397-408. doi:10.1016/s0882-5963(03)00160-x
5. Ngui EM, Greer DM, Bridgewater FD, Salm Ward TC, Cisler RA. Trends and Progress in Reducing Teen Birth Rates and the Persisting Challenge of Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;4(4):615-622. doi:10.1007/s40615-016-0265-5
Here is the rubric:
DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT
Requirements for Content
- Description of the problem
- Contributing factors to the problem
- Population health and financial impact of the problem
- At least three ongoing strategies/solutions to address the problem
- Your proposal of a new model/solution to address the problem, conceptualized from what you studied in HCD 520 and your literature review. This can be
- A new model/solution
- A hybrid of models/solutions you learned about in HCD 520 and/or literature review
- Extension of a model/solution already in existence to your problem
- Key population health influencers that need to be involved in your proposed model/solution
- A minimum of 10 FULL pages. Title page & references are not included in the page count
- Ten pages is a minimum so you can exceed this as needed to write a good paper
- Important information to include from resources: the evidence, data, prior work and outcomes, any relevant regulation
- The content of your paper needs to be based on reputable references, not based on information from lay press (e.g. Arizona Republic, Time Magazine), lay websites, lay blogs, non-peer reviewed articles or personal opinion
Requirements for References
- A minimumof 12 references including the five key references from PART II in AMA or APA citation style (https://libguides.asu.edu/ld.php?content_id=10616610Links to an external site.)
- Average number of references from past classes = 20-25
- Use reputable, high level, and current data & literature including peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports and data, reputable organizational reports
- The majority of your references need to be articles or reports not websites
- Older articles and reports may be acceptable, but current material (2014-2019) needs to be used if available
- Reference original sources
- Do not reference HCD 520 lectures – reference the original sources
- Do not use lay press (e.g. Arizona Republic, Time Magazine), lay websites, lay blogs, and non-peer reviewed articles as they are low-level references
- Summarize the material from your references. Minimize use of quotations from resources. Information should be synthesized from different resources
Requirements for Paper Style
- Double-spaced, 1-inch margins, 12 pt. font (Times New Roman recommended)
- Page numbers on each page
Requirements for Paper Format (I recommend you use these sections)
- Include a title page with paper title, name, class name & number, instructor, date, and your problem statement
- Introduction: State the problem, Brieflyintroduce the key points you will elaborate upon in the paper, Clearly state what the paper will be about in the last 1-2 sentences
- Background: Provide detailed information on your problem, detail contributing factors
- Impact: Discuss the population health and financial impact, provide relevant data
- Strategies/Solutions: Discuss at least 3 ongoing strategies/solutions to address your population health problem & propose your new model/solution with the needed key influencers
- Conclusion:Briefly summarize the problem, the key issues your paper has addressed, and solutions discussed, End with a strong statement that ties the paper together
- References: AMA or APA citation style
Teen pregnancy alone is an extremely important health problem that needs to be further brought to light in order for it to be effectively prevented. In the U.S. the teen pregnancy rates are astronomically high in comparison to other countries. There are a number of reasons for this such as race, upbringing, social norms, low education, low income, family values, etc. The reality is that the U.S. ranks first among developed nations in teen pregnancy rates, in 2017 non-hispanic caucasian females had a rate of 13.2% (CDC, 2019). This problem needs to be addressed, properly evaluated and as a result solutions will be thought up and implemented. This is the only way that we will see rates start to decrease. Ultimately, teen pregnancy rates in the U.S. can be greatly decreased amongst non-hispanic caucasian females if there was sufficient enough educational material available to these young females so that they could prevent teen pregnancy and understand how to properly do so. This paper will further explore the above theory along with what the major factors in these young females lives that lead them to becoming pregnant as a teen, what can be done with the specific demographic of non-hispanic caucasian females to lower these teen pregnancy rates and also what strategies of effective prevention of teen pregnancy look like and or how it needs to improve.
Teen pregnancy rates in the U.S. are ridiculously high and haven’t fallen much over the years. For non-hispanic caucasian teens the teen pregnancy rates from 2016 to 2017 actually
decreased by 1.1% in the U.S. Though there is some decrease in the teen pregnancy rates for some years, other years you can see an obvious influx in teen pregnancy for non-hispanic caucasian teens in the U.S. Teen pregnancy is a seriously population health problem because teen females make up a very large amount of the population and being pregnant as a teen not only comes with complications but as a teen you are still living your life and have not even finished high-school. Teen pregnancy can cause huge issues for these teen females such as be the cause they miss out on job opportunities, be the cause that they do not get a sufficient education, be the cause they drop out of school, be the cause they live in poverty, etc. These are all life changing results of where teen pregnancy can put a teen female. For specifically non-hispanic caucasian teen females there is less concern about teen pregnancy leading to poverty or homelessness. Statistically speaking, non-hispanic caucasian teen females are actually the least likely to become pregnant in comparison to other races and also are the most likely to have sufficient help to be able to raise a baby as a teen and be able to graduate.
Some of the biggest contributing factors to the issue are a lack of education on the matter of teen pregnancy, teens starting to have sex before they understand the repercussions of their actions, lack of access to contraceptive to prevent pregnancy, etc. In fact, 35% of sexually active female teenagers become pregnant before age 19.3 This is why educating teens about the repercussions of having sex and also how to prevent pregnancy is so important. Pregnancy and birth are significant contributors to high school dropout rates among girls. Only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, whereas approximately 90% of women who do not give birth during adolescence graduate from high school.1 Other contributing
factors include how and where the female is raised. For a non-hispanic caucasian teen female it is viewed as undesirable to be pregnant, as it does not appear as socially acceptable by the family. Teen pregnancy is more commonly normalized by minorities.
Teen pregnancy obviously greatly impacts population health in the U.S. especially since here there are among some of the highest teen pregnancy rates here. In fact, compared with babies of older mothers, those born to teenagers are more likely to have lower birth weights, increased infant mortality, an increased risk of hospital admission in early childhood, less supportive home environments, poorer cognitive development and, if female, a higher risk of becoming pregnant themselves as teenagers.13 The teen population who becomes pregnant deals with so much that is avoidable, as will their children in regards to their health and wellbeing.
The financial impact that teen pregnancy has on the U.S. is just as great as the population health impacts. The government works to keep the doors of places open like Planned Parenthood open so that teens can have contraceptive options, provide pregnancy services, etc. There are adoption agencies that are funded through taxpayers, their doors stay open due to the fact that there are only so many teens (and women in general) who actually end up keeping the baby they have. Another big expense is all of the healthcare provided (if healthcare costs are covered) while the teen is pregnant in which taxpayers are paying for. Not to mention the financial burden that teen pregnancy causes to the mother and or the family of the mother helping prepare for a baby.
When a female teen is pregnant the healthcare cost including the birth is well over $20,000. The good news for the teen females who do become pregnant and carry out the pregnancy is that the likely-hood of them having to pay a dime is slim given the fact that usually they will qualify for Medicaid, be on their parents insurance plan or be able to obtain other low cost insurance.
There are also all of the expenses that come with preparing for a new baby like clothes, bottles, diapers, etc. Then raising the child for 18 years after that is an extreme financial responsibility that teens are not prepared to handle yet. Teen pregnancy is the purest example of what a true financial struggle is. If this was explained and teens could see a layout of how much a baby costs this would be a huge and impactful deterrent for being careless and uneducated about sex and pregnancy, then as a result teen pregnancy rates would decrease.
One strategy that could be proven successful would be improvement of sex education. Sex education in schools needs to be reconstructed to help kids understand sexual health, teen pregnancy and other sex related topics before they arise. Sex education by the time teens get to learning about it is often this whole awkward process, especially in school with peers around. Reconstruction and improvement of sex education programs in school would consist of not only revamping material to be more up to date but also making teens more comfortable to tackle the topic regularly. The more that this is done the more teens talk and the more talking about sex education and teen pregnancy becomes less taboo and more teens are informed. This in turn
results in lower numbers related to teen pregnancy if the sex education in schools can get a total revamp.
Another strategy is the creation of a sex education program that follows children and gets more in depth throughout grade-school. Kids can start in Kindergarten just learning about their body and being self aware and then before the age that teen pregnancy starts to occur the topic would be already covered since in every grade kids would be building upon sex education and their own sexual health and well being. Hence teen pregnancy is a topic that would be prematurely covered which would in turn preemptively
Another Strategy that could work is tailoring sex education and teen pregnancy information to not only young females but also per demographic. This way it can be more relatable and if it is even a little bit relatable it is more likely to be remembered and or valued than if it wasn’t relatable in some way and was just paragraphs about how to prevent teen pregnancy. Ways that it could be relatable and rememberable is if teen pregnancy is discussed and why it is such an issue is examined then the young females read a story about a young female who is also a non-hispanic caucasian female in the U.S. and it explains how she became pregnant, what went wrong, how she struggled, etc. This would be something that young females could look at and read then decide they do not want this to happen to them and they then are equipped with the knowledge to know how to avoid teen pregnancy.
It is my proposed new solution in which key influencers would be those teaching the material. It would be up to the teachers who are teaching the sex education material to make the classroom environment open and a safe space where sexual health is normalized and children are learning more as they are growing and getting closer to the age where teen pregnancy tends to become an issue.
Teen pregnancy is a much bigger population health problem than most people know or understand. If it was more accurately perceived as to why and how it continues to occur then there might be more effective resources and education in place to prevent it. Though this is not the case, if my above solution of creation and implementation of a K-12 sexual health or sex education curriculum was implemented and taught with a focus on prevention of pregnancy in teen females ages 15-19 then teen pregnancy rates would decline not only in non-hispanic caucasian females but in other demographics as well. This would be done by not only preemptively teaching material on teen pregnancy such earlier than the age of 15 which aids in prevention but also tailoring the material to relate to females of different backgrounds and races. Making the material relatable and sharing experiences, stories and other information really makes the information stick on in a young persons head. That all being said, teen pregnancy rates in non-hispanic caucasian females in the U.S. definitely have the capability to be lowered and even completely eliminated through the power of proper education.
1. CDC. Social Determinants and Eliminating Disparities in Teen Pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https:// disparities-teen-pregnancy.htm. Published October 15, 2019. Accessed October 26, 2020.
2. Barber JS, Yarger JE, Gatny HH. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women. Demography. 2015;52(3):751-786. doi:10.1007/s13524-015-0391-4
3. Horn B. Cultural beliefs and teenage pregnancy. Nurse Pract. 1983;8(8):35-74.
4. Murray J. Teen pregnancy: an international perspective. Plan Parent Rev. 1986;6(1):20-21.
5. Spear HJ, Lock S. Qualitative research on adolescent pregnancy: a descriptive review and analysis. J Pediatr Nurs. 2003;18(6):397-408. doi:10.1016/s0882-5963(03)00160-x
6. Ngui EM, Greer DM, Bridgewater FD, Salm Ward TC, Cisler RA. Trends and Progress in Reducing Teen Birth Rates and the Persisting Challenge of Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;4(4):615-622. doi:10.1007/s40615-016-0265-
7. Upadhya KK, Ellen JM. Social disadvantage as a risk for first pregnancy among adolescent females in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 2011;49(5):538-541. doi:10.1016/ j.jadohealth.2011.04.011
8. Abdelaal H, Mohamed MA, Aly H. Racial Disparity, Depression, and Birth Outcomes Among Pregnant Teens. Matern Child Health J. 2018;22(10):1400-1406. doi:10.1007/ s10995-018-2519-9
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11. McAnarney ER, Hendee WR. Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences. JAMA. 1989;262(1):74-77.
12. Ventura SJ. Recent trends in teenage childbearing in the United States. Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co. 1994;75(4):10-17.
13. Langille DB. Teenage pregnancy: trends, contributing factors and the physician’s role. CMAJ. 2007;176(11):1601-1602. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070352
14. Adverse Effects | Youth.gov. Youth.gov. https://youth.gov/youth-topics/pregnancy- prevention/adverse-effects-teen-pregnancy. Published 2020. Accessed December 2, 2020.
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18. Russotti J, Rogosch FA, Handley ED, Douthit KZ, Marquis A, Cicchetti D. Teen childbearing and offspring internalizing symptoms: The mediating role of child maltreatment [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 22]. Dev Psychopathol. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1017/ S0954579420000413
19. Kearney MS, Levine PB. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?. J Econ Perspect. 2012;26(2):141-166. doi:10.1257/jep.26.2.141