enrollment ), pooled analyses revealed moderate size positive effects H e a l t h M e d i c a l

enrollment ), pooled analyses revealed moderate size positive effects H e a l t h M e d i c a l


Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

Evidence-based public health translation of research to practice is essential to improve the public’s health. Dissemination and implementation researchers have explored what happens once practitioners adopt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and have developed models and frameworks to describe the adaptation process (Escoffery et al, 2019). Based on the recognition that food insecurity (FI) is associated with poor health across the life course, many US health systems are actively exploring ways to help patients access food resources. Evidence demonstrates food insecurity (FI) restricted access to adequate food due to a lack of money or other resources adversely impacts health and well-being across the life course. As of 2017, 11.8% of US households reported being food insecure at some point during the year, though rates varied by household demographics. For example, over 22% of households headed by non-His-panic Black individuals, 18% of households headed by Hispanic individuals, and 16% of households with children were food insecure (De Marchis et al, 2019)

    Despite this growing enthusiasm, there is little clarity about the impacts of FI interventions initiated in health care delivery settings. Studies have examined outcomes ranging from: (1) process outcomes (e.g., number of patients referred), (2) food security status, (3) health, (4) health behaviors and self-efficacy, (5) health care utilization and/or cost, and (6) patient/caregiver perception of intervention acceptability. No studies reported provider outcomes (e.g., provider attitudes or behavior change) related to interventions. Despite the rapid increase in health care–based FI interventions, this is the first systematic evidence review of health care delivery–based FI interventions. Of the 23 studies that met inclusion criteria, the majority exclusively described process metrics. These studies reported a wide range in food program referral and enrollment rates. When studies reported the effects of FI interventions on actual use of resources (not just enrollment), pooled analyses revealed moderate size positive effects. These studies rarely explored reasons that referrals did not consistently result in program use (De Marchis et al, 2019)

    One critical strategy to address food insecurity and its negative consequences is to connect children and their families to the major federal nutrition programs that benefit children and their families – that is, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program; School Breakfast Program; Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP); Summer Nutrition Programs; and Afterschool Nutrition Programs. There is considerable evidence about the effective role that participation in the federal nutrition programs plays in alleviating food insecurity and poverty. For instance, children in households that participated in SNAP for 6 months are approximately one-third less likely to be food insecure than children in households recently approved for SNAP but not yet receiving it, based on a national sample of SNAP households with children. WIC reduces the prevalence of household food insecurity by at least 20%, based on a national sample of children under the age of 5 who lived in households that were income-eligible for WIC. Additional peer-reviewed studies demonstrate improvements in food security with school breakfast, school lunch, summer meals, and CACFP participation. Food insecurity has serious consequences on the health, development, and well-being of children, and has negative effects on the health care system and economy. Pediatricians can support and improve the health of their patients, as well as children across the nation, by addressing food insecurity and its root causes at the practice level and through policy advocacy (Hartline-Grafton et al, 2020).


De Marchis, E. H., Torres, J. M., Benesch, T., Fichtenberg, C., Allen, I. E., Whitaker, E. M., & Gottlieb, L. M. (2019). Interventions Addressing Food Insecurity in Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review. Annals of family medicine, 17(5), 436–447. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2412

Escoffery, C., Lebow-Skelley, E., Udelson, H., Böing, E.A., Wood, R., Fernandez, M.E., & Mullen, P.D. (2019). A scoping study of frameworks for adapting public health evidence-based interventions, Translational Behavioral Medicine. 9(1). pp 1-10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibx067

Hartline-Grafton, H., & Hassink, S. G. (2020). Food Insecurity and Health: Practices and Policies to Address Food Insecurity among Children. Academic pediatrics, S1876-2859(20)30426-5. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.07.006


Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.) Include at least one scholarly reference and appropriate in-text citations and Address all points on the DQ. One point will be deducted for not addressing each item mentioned above. Remember that presenting someone else’s work as your own is plagiarism. 

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


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