electronic sources without page numbers W r i t i n g

electronic sources without page numbers W r i t i n g


Now, you will write a 300-350 word reflection on a few of the main things you learned in this module. Give examples of the rules and skills you learned, some ways you changed your own draft as a result, and how you hope to continue to apply this knowledge moving forward.

Below, it is all the content contained in this module


In this module, you are going to reflect on how to integrate research into your project. Each section will give you some rules and guidelines on how to correctly include and cite research, and then you will be asked to apply this new knowledge to your own draft in progress. Good luck!

In-Text Citation Options

There are a few possible ways to correctly cite a source in-text. Let’s look at an example on The OWL at Purdue website:

Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).

Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).

Notice that in the first example, Burke’s name comes in the signal phrase before the quoted material. For the second example, which does not have Burke’s name in the signal phrase, it is included in the parenthetical citation. Both of these options are correct, and mixing your use of them will prevent your sentences from all sounding the same and allow for more dynamic writing.

Here are a few other guidelines:

  • Try to avoid using the exact same words (like “According to”) in too many of your citations–there should be some variety.
  • If you do not know the author’s name, you typically refer to it by the first element in the Works Cited page, typically the title.
  • if you are paraphrasing, rather than quoting, specific content, you still need to cite it.
  • Electronic sources without page numbers do not need a page or paragraph number as part of their citation, but you do need to clearly cite the source in a signal phrase or parenthetical.
  • In-Text Citation Options Revision

    Look through your essay to make sure you:

    • Correctly gave a source and, if applicable, page or paragraph number, for every piece of specific information you cited
    • varied your citation methods to make more dynamic, engaging sentences
    • did not cite all sources in the exact same way every time (for example, beginning all sentences with “According to…”)
    • Quotation and Paraphrase

      Your essay should ideally integrate a mix of quotation and paraphrase that works for you. Direct quotation can be helpful in showcasing some of the unique language utilized in a source. Paraphrasing, or putting the source material in your own words, can allow you to retain your authorial voice and prevent too many direct quotes from overpowering a paragraph (or an entire essay). Here are some guidelines to follow when deciding whether to quote or paraphrase:

      1. Aim for a mix of quotation and paraphrase. Solely using quotations can result in the paper that doesn’t have enough of your own voice, but solely paraphrasing can result in a paper that overlooks the interesting content in the source material and lacks specificity.
      2. Partial quote integration can allow you to have the best of both worlds.
      3. Block quotes (quotes longer than four lines) are generally not a good idea in essays this short.

      Quotation and Paraphrase Revision

      Look through your essay to review your quotation and paraphrase.

      • If you solely quoted or paraphrased, consider varying your approach.
      • If you used a longer quote of which only a few words are important, consider writing the sentence with a partial quote.
      • If you have an especially long quote, consider paraphrasing or using only part of it–and in general, try to avoid block quotes.

      Formatting Your Works Cited Page

      You should begin your Works Cited page on a new page after the last page of your essay (unless given directions by your instructor to do otherwise). For some basic and advanced guidelines on how to format the page, we can revisit The Purnue的猫头鹰 (Links to an external site.). In general, here are some things to watch for:

      1. Arrange your sources alphabetically. For multiple entries by the same author, arrange them in alphabetical order by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author’s name for every entry after the first, like this: —.
      2. Use hanging indents. For your Works Cited page, you should create hanging indents, in which every line other than the first line of each entry is indented. In Microsoft Word, you can find the setting by highlight the text you want to indent, clicking the “paragraph” button (on the Home tab), and selecting the “Hanging” option under the “Special” box.
      3. Double-space your entries. Also, make sure there is not an extra space between entries.

      Works Cited Example

      To see an example of what a Works Cited page will look like when you have many sources, take a look at 示例 (Links to an external site.) from The OWL at Purdue.

      Formatting Your Works Cited Page Revision

      Look at your own Works Cited page, and make sure it is formatted according to the guidelines on the previous page.

    • Citing Nonstandard Sources

      Many of you probably have previous experience citing a book, journal article, or website. But what about a photograph, social media conversation, or tweet? There are standard practices for citing that content as well, and if you are unsure on how to do it, you should always look it up. If you are using the MLA网站 (Links to an external site.), that is a great place to find information, as is the Purdue (Links to an external site.).What if I cannot find an author, date, etc.?
      Although you may not be able to find all the information for a particular source, put as much as you can find in the citation in the recommended order.Now, take a look for yourself!
      指向 (Links to an external site.)to the Owl at Purdue will show you how to cite several electronic sources, including:

      • web sites and pages
      • blog posts
      • emails
      • tweets
      • YouTube videos
      • comments on websites

      Citing Nonstandard Sources Revision

      Look at your own essay and Works Cited page. Check to make sure that you have correctly cited all included sources.

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