early learning state standards rarely contain explicit guidelines H u m a n i t i e s

early learning state standards rarely contain explicit guidelines H u m a n i t i e s

identify how these articles are connected to each other, comparing and analyzing the content, research methods, etc. In other words, you will identify the larger argument discussed in each of the articles, and identify the connection across the articles (i.e. Are the arguments in the articles in agreement or opposition?). (4 ARTICLES ARE COMPLETED BELOW) The final draft of the literature review will incorporate your viewpoints and argument about the topic, as the ways in which your viewpoints shift from reviewing the articles. Your final draft should be 5 – 7 pages. I have a small overview allready done as well as my feelings toward developing language. You can just add to that- i uploaded a powerpoint as well that can help. The articles are just attached for bibliogrpahy page.

.Identify your Topic

The area of language development I am interested in researching is vocabulary development. I really want to focus more on emergent literacy practice than secondary language learners because it will help me become better at teaching my current students how to develop and expand their vocabulary.

1. When exposing children to new vocabulary words, do you only use text or different visuals?

2.Will children use these words independently and how can a teacher set it up so that they can do this.

3. How do children develop vocabulary through direct and indirect instruction?


I am interested in this topic because it was very interesting to learn the concepts of how to build a child’s vocabulary. I have already learned terms such as direct and indirect vocabulary instruction that has helped me in my current workplace. I also like that it involves the practice of phonological awareness, phonics, and fluency. What I do know about vocabulary development already is engaging in conversation when reading a book to my students. I also try to use that word in different contexts and settings so they can apply It wherever they see it.


Vocabulary development is worth researching because it is essential to becoming a good reader and writer. It also allows you to develop your language which is essential to communicate. I hope to learn different ways to promote vocabulary development for different students and alter it in a way that is best for their needs. The discussion in class that was about the hula hoop girl was one of the reasons that I decided to choose this topic because vocabulary words were pre taught before reading the book to allow the students to better understand the book which I thought “Wow that makes so much sense”. I think it is very good for the teacher to thoroughly plan what their goal is and how they are going to teach a specific topic before they do.

(Bib 2)

In the article, Matthew Effects in Young Readers: Reading Comprehension and Reading Experience Aid Vocabulary Development, Cain and Oakhill (2011) the differentiated practice as one of the factors that can lead to the Matthew Effect among young readers is explained. The Matthew Effect is a broad term used in the educational community to describe many concepts. However, in this context, it has been used to refer to the circumstances that differentiate poor and good readers and how it increases over time. Young readers mainly develop their vocabularies through reading; therefore, good readers are better positioned to have a good vocabulary than poor readers. Practicing reading can influence the ability read with less errors in a positive way.

Children showing signs or who have poor reading skills can fail to understand the content of what they are reading. This may. Because of their comprehension skills being compromised by their slow decoding technique. Children who struggle may fail to stay focused on their reading. This may significantly impact their academic life as they will stay less motivated to read even during their leisure time compared to those with good reading skills. Compared to poor readers who choose to read fewer challenging books, good readers will be motivated to read challenging books. Failure to read the challenging books will reduce their experience in reading and have an impact on the growth of their literacy competence. Children who read during their off time will develop practical reading skills compared to those who fail to read and wait to do so during their time in school.

(Bib 1)

In the article, “Teacher child conversations in preschool classrooms: Contributions to children’s vocabulary development”, Cabell (2015) explains how children’s language skills development can easily be enhanced through a vital mechanism that promotes high-quality pre-school programs and vocabulary development. For example, engaging in daily opportunities such as conversing with their teachers and peers in school and home. Many pre-school classrooms operating within the poverty areas appear to have and offer limited options to children. Therefore, children fail to understand the little multi conversation between their peers and the teachers who build and improve their vocabulary.

The article analyzes children’s challenges and the need for them to be addressed as quickly as possible. As such, researcher’s all over the globe are actively studying and recording means in which children’s language-learning experiences can be improved. They, therefore, came up with some of the following strategies: increasing the teacher’s use for effective strategic responses to encourage these students to engage their teachers and peers in effective conversations that will improve their vocabulary. They also told the teachers to encourage the children to start the conversation and not the teachers; they also encouraged the building of vocabularies from the children’s talks, and finally prodding turn-taking.

The article also explains the importance of having a teacher-child conversation by encouraging more talks in pre-school settings. They acknowledge both the research and theory suggestions that the back-and-forth exchanges were done verbally and are essential for accelerating a child’s early language development. They also encouraged parent-child talks when the kids are at home, suggesting that such conversations may be more influential to their language development than having an adult read a book or a story for them.

(Bib 3)

In the article Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A comparison f extended instruction, embedded instruction, and incidental exposure, Mitchell, A. M., & Coyne, M. D. (2016), the authors state that language development majorly occurs during preschool years. Therefore, having a child in preschool at this age gives the child a favorable condition where their vocabulary growth can be fostered. The article highlights the effectiveness of instructional conditions and incidental exposure conditions for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students through storybook readings. Vocabulary knowledge is essential to a child’s oral language that helps them in their reading and academic success in later grades. One of the ways in which early childhood and elementary school students have been trained on vocabulary learning is through storybook reading strategies. The article highlights that most early learning state standards rarely contain explicit guidelines for instruction targeting vocabulary development which has led to a limit on word knowledge instruction in early childhood settings.

However, storybook reading would effectively expand a child’s word learning because it provides a natural and practical context for vocabulary instructions for young children. Storybook reading offers students and teachers an opportunity to have an expanded language interaction. Additionally, having that this method encourages active participation and engagement of students through conversations involving story text, teachers can effectively spur vocabulary development. Additionally, this context allows children to be exposed to vocabulary words more times, linked to increased levels of word learning. However, the article highlights that repeated reading and within-context explanations of word meanings alone do not provide additional context for word exposure, which is necessary for deep flexible processing of words. Therefore, supplementary or extended vocabulary instruction following storybook reading is needed to strengthen word learning and provide exposure to meaning and additional context.

(Bib 4)

In the article A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development. Child Development, Rowe (2012) it expresses how the goal is to analyze the role of vocabulary size in a child’s ability to read and succeed in school. During development, a child’s environment contributes to language acquisition, where a child acquires linguistic input. There are different language input methods, including parental communication. According to the article, various researches have indicated a positive relationship between parental use of sophisticated vocabulary and decontextualized learning to a child’s vocabulary skills. Moreover, the study highlights that these specific measures of input quantity relate to a child’s vocabulary skill at different points in development irrespective of social economic status of the parents and quantity of inputs given during the child’s communication with parents. This indicates that quantity is not the only determinant for a child’s vocabulary quality and that a child’s age and language ability determine the quality of a child’s vocabulary skills. The importance of different measures of language input varies depending on the child’s age. At two years, the quantity of input measures is significant. However, at three years, the child requires diversity and sophistication in vocabulary. Their fourth year calls for the use of decontextualized language such as narrative and explanation input.

Additionally, to increase the quality of vocabulary skills for children, the article highlights that the quantity of parent input is essential. However, integrating other measures such as episodes of joint attention and gestures to highlight different meanings for different words are suitable quality measures for language development. It is essential that a child first develops a quantity of vocabulary gained by more exposure and interaction with the parent’s language input. However, after acquiring vocabulary quantity input, the child must diversify and establish their vocabulary skill, which will require exposure to diversity and sophistication. Therefore, variations in a child’s vocabulary skills can be attributed to the sheer number of different words or the number of different rare words a child is exposed to. Vocabulary diversity and sophistication are essential in a child’s vocabulary growth in terms of the word types the child is likely to produce. Overall, different child stages require various vocabulary measures input.

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