cohen et al ., 2013 ). H u m a n i t i e s

cohen et al ., 2013 ). H u m a n i t i e s

FOR THE NEXT TWO DISCUSSION POSTS: 175-word minimum PER RESPONSE. Discuss how the content of the post is similar to or different from your post and explore how different experiences and knowledge result in different perspectives. Focus on providing facts, rather than opinion, to support the assumption being presented as concerning to them. Keep in mind that the objective of response posts is to stimulate discussion, promote an exchange of ideas, and (most importantly) to generate a sense of community among learners in the courseroom.

FIRST Discussion Post

In chapter four “Of Test and Testing” were discuss seven assumptions, the overview of the elements of a good test. This is the first time that I read about the seven assumptions. In this case assumption 2: Psychological Traits and State Can Be Quantified and Measured is the one that concerns me the most. In the scale of 0-3, I am in scale 2; very concerned with this assumption.

The most difficult part to understand in assumption 2 is to understand the purpose of the test, the results of the test. For example, “Think different ways a term such as aggressive is used, an aggressive salesperson, an aggressive killer, an aggressive waiter. (Cohen & Swerdilk, 2018). In each person aggressive have a different meaning to understand. Professionals may understand the purpose of each test and the results as well. For example “If a personality test yields a score purporting to provide information about how aggressive a testtaker is. In this case, professionals may understand the meaning of the score how aggressive was defined by the test developer” (Cohen & Swerdilk, 2018). In another test, the developer might define it as the number of observed acts of aggression.

In my personal experience, I had to take some test that I had to understand the meaning of the test, the perspective of others and the results. Assumption 2 concerns me because the testtaker has to understand the meaning of the test, the meaning of the results. For example years ago I took a personality test. Before I took the test I did not understand the meaning and the perspective of the test neither the results. After I took the test I read and understand the meaning of the test and the purpose of the test. A few days ago I took the same test, but now I understand the meaning of the test and of course the results of the test.

Went over the table of context there are several chapters that seen important and relevant to me. The chapter that grabs my attention in chapter 13; Clinical and Counseling Assessment. This chapter has several subjects that are relevant to me, for example, special applications of clinical measures, child abuse and neglect, the psychological report and self-assessment.


Identify the assumption by number and title that presented the most questions for you. (Include the number and title in your subject line of the discussion thread when you post it.) Also, include an indicator about how concerning the assumption is to you at this time (that is, 0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented; 1 = Somewhat concerned with this assumption; 2 = Very concerned with this assumption; 3 = Significantly concerned and in disagreement with this assumption).

Number: #5

Title: “Various Sources of Error Are Part of the Assessment Process”

How concerning the assumption is to you at this time:

0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented

Identify specific parts or elements of the assumption that were most concerning to you.

Through the readings it is understandable how all seven of the assumptions play a crucial role in understanding and creating reliable and accurate testing. For this discussion the choice was made to discuss assumption 5, which focuses upon the calculations of error within the assessment process because of the difficulty to comprehend calculating and measuring for error. According to Cohen, Swerdlik, & Sturman, (2013) when looking at error measurability, numerous causes can come into play. This can include even the weather. Research indicated that weather had the ability to impact human expression of character traits during assessment (Cohen et al., 2013).

It becomes overwhelming to think of all of the ways that error can seep into assessments. However, my most concerning part is how one measures for error. In the article, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as predictors of university students’ self/peer-assessment rating error, authors Birjandi & Siyyari (2016) sought to determine if the traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness would impact self-rating errors within the given circumstances of the study they were conducting. From the outcome of the study, Birjandi & Siyyari (2016) were unable to come to any conclusions that could indicate that these traits impacted the outcome of rating error.

Analyze if the assumption elements identified are based on (a) your previous experiences, (b) others’ perspectives, (c) facts, or (d) a combination of these.

The elements identified are based upon a combination of the present readings, and past experience as a researcher for the Department of Social Work at Arizona State University during my undergrad.

Discuss why these elements were most concerning to you in terms of those previous experiences, perspectives, or facts. Essentially, share an example of those experiences or knowledge that resulted in your current concern.

When I was an undergraduate student I participated in a research project where we analyzed information and used SPSS to look over the data. At the time as a junior, the professor heading the study was keen to inform me that there would need to be a 5% margin for error added. I did not understand what she meant. I did eventually learn to accept that error is added into the results. I just still do not know to this day how you weight error by percentage, and how you determine what to include as error.

Identify which future chapter in the Psychological Testing and Assessment text may be important and relevant for you, based on the assumption you identified.

Looking through the chapters I determined that chapter 6 on Validity would address my concerns. In particular pages 193-195 in chapter 6 goes over rating error, such as in leniency error, also known as generosity error (Cohen et al., 2013). This chapter provides a brief explanation on understanding more about what is used to determine rating errors.

FOR THE NEXT TWO DISCUSSION POSTS: In each response, agree or disagree with the importance of the influential event the learner identified. How influential was the event in shaping the field of career counseling? Be specific as to why you agree or disagree.175-word minimum


Career changing is nothing new in this society. Staying in one job/career for 30 years is rare now. Many employers have added 401K to their benefits to keep their employees but that has shown to not be enough. The education system is making it easier for people to change professions. Unfortunately, the bachelor’s degree isn’t taking people far enough to feel complete financially or educationally. Not to mention the change in our society of what job/career is important and makes money.

Pope (2000) explains the 1st stage of placement services was started in 1890-1919. The 2nd stage of educational guidance started in 1920-1939. The 3rd stage of college and training of counselors was in 1940-1959. The 4th stage started organizational career development in 1960-1979. The 5th stage started independent practice of career counseling and outplacement counseling in 1980-1989. The 6th stage shown an increase in technology, internationalization of career counseling, multicultural career counseling beginning, and school to job transition in 1990 to present (Pope, 2000). All these events are important but the most important is the 6th stage of multicultural career counseling.

Hershenson (2016) discuss the issues with minorities and counseling is that more than 60% of these clients do not return for a second visit with a counselor. This tells me that this event is the most important part of counseling to deal with. Counselors want to help and gain trust of their clients. Without the proper multicultural training counselors will not be able to retain their clients. Therefore, in career counseling understanding cultures and having the training necessary to control bias. Hershenson (2016) discusses the importance of trust/distrust being the crucial factor to establish a rapport and have a successful relationship with our clients.

Our society is changing. We need to keep up with our ever-changing multicultural clients. As future therapist our multicultural events will weigh heavily on our practice. With these multicultural events happening we must ensure our clients and our practice can progress.


There have been many events influencing changes when it comes to career counseling and development. Each of these events have led to different caveats within the realm of career counseling. The one which has had the most influential impact on career counseling is industrialization leading to urbanization. This event is what sparked the start of the career counseling theory.

According to Pope (2000) the first stage of career counseling began in 1890. This was due to the industrialization and urbanization happening around the turn of the century. Industrialization led to more concentrated areas of laborers being necessary. This was a change from a more subsistence way of life people had lived before this time. The invention of mechanical power (Hershenson, 2016) on family farms and less labor needed lead to people congregating in urban areas. Poverty also became a factor as urban areas developed.

It appears because this was the beginning stages of career counseling the basic structure was to match individuals with a job (Pope, 2000). Hershenson (2016) cites later theories on career counseling challenged the initial but it still was the starting point of the field. Without industrialization leading to urbanization career counseling may not have existed. Labor would not have been necessary in concentrated areas and age-old systems of labor on family farms would have continued without this occurring. In sum, industrialization has been the most influential event to career counseling.

FOR THE NEXT TWO DISCUSSION POSTS: In each response, provide constructive criticism or responses to the learner’s assessment of current trends, their significance on vocational theory, and the impact on career practitioners. 175-word minimum.


As far as current trends in career counseling, I believe would be more focused on people being able to work in a more diverse workplace. I also believe that societal demands will also play a major role in this area of psychology such as higher minimum wages, more updated safety standards in the workplace, advancements in work environment whether that means being able to bring a pet to the office, healthier food options in the break room etc. I have worked in two psychiatric hospitals here in Colorado Springs and in both hospitals, I have been asking for juice to be added to the vending machine as well as food we can heat in the microwave instead of chips and candy. Another big issue for me since I work 12 hours is a longer lunch break, instead of 30 minutes, perhaps 45 minutes. Sometimes we have patients who really have the ability to dig under your skin, and you just need some time away, or the other night I was on a 12 hour 1 to 1 with a suicidal patient. That meant sitting in a dark room, and being within arms reach of the patient and watching them sleep. This was the case because I was the only male at work, so for legal safety reason a female couldn’t sit with him.

Also, I have noticed in this field, that companies like these psychiatric hospitals provide their patients with reasonable safety measures, but not their employees. As an employee we have the right to come to a safe workplace. We understand that psych patients come from horrible backgrounds, and sometimes can be violent. I have had my glasses broken which the company should buy new glasses. However, the deal with the company is that I have to buy the glasses and then bring them the receipt so they can reimburse us in the next pay period. I’m sorry, but with how bills are these days, making $14.50 an hour, some workers are unable to buy new glasses for the company to reimburse them. Most of us are not willing to be hit by our patients for that kind of money either, let alone chase them if they elope.


The ever-evolving world of knowledge and information with technology will keep influencing vocational theory. Vocational theory will have to evolve with the changing times and keep into perspective how careers evolve with the use of technology and what careers will slowly dissipate due to them being able to be replaced with technology and not the need of a human being.

Advancing technology has an impact on how an individual will accomplish their work. One study evidenced that manual labor in most fields will continue to decrease while there is an increase in complexity of mental work when working with automated systems and robots (Beer & Mulder, 2020). The continual change in working characteristics include “knowledge about technology, openness toward change and technology, skills for self and time management and for further professional and career development” (Beer & Mulder, 2020).

Career practitioners can adapt the theory of continuous vocational education and training by incorporating training interventions for the individual that have the ability to learn, computer literacy, a positive attitude, and trust in the process Beer and Mulder, 2020). Career practitioners can advance the theory of continuous vocational and training by developing these objectives and more in training intervention.

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