“ certain traits regularly recurring together ”, H u m a n i t i e s
Request: This final assignment consists of approaching 4 different topics in regard to the philosophy field (the questions are provided below and in the attached guideline). Each question should be approximately 1 page and a half ( you can write more, but not less) which means that the final task will have a total of 6 pages, double spaced, Times New Roman, MLA format excluding cover and reference page.Please read the attached guideline as it contains vital information and also a LIST of references which you MUST used in your work ( most of the ideas should be retrieved from those sources)
Your answers should focus on the analysis of the arguments, and leave all other irrelevant information (such as biographical or anecdotal information) out. You will be marked on clarity, comprehensiveness, and depth of your analysis. Even though you will deliver all the
Question 1: You have the opportunity to go back in time to stop a murder. However, in order to do so, you have no choice but to kill the murderer yourself. Putting aside any other problems with time travel, and just assessing the particular ethical dimension of killing in order to stop a murder, contrast a Kantian and a Nietzschean take on the matter, and argue for one as your actual position.
Question 2: Friedrich Nietzsche, in Beyond Good and Evil, makes a distinction between what he claims are the two ‘types’ of morality. Saying that there are “certain traits regularly recurring together”, he proceeds to describe them, and classifies previous systems of morality into those categories. What are the two types? Describe them. Finally, using examples from (a) previous theorist(s) in the course, make an argument either for or against Nietzsche’s distinction.
Question 3: In Existentialism is a Humanism, Jean-Paul Sartre writes, “And at the point of departure there cannot be any other truth than this, I think, therefore I am, which is the absolute truth of consciousness as it attains to itself. Every theory which begins with man, outside of this moment of self-attainment, is a theory which thereby suppresses the truth, for outside of the Cartesian cogito, all objects are no more than probable, and any doctrine of probabilities which is not attached to a truth will crumble into nothing.” Explain how Sartre understands and subsequently, modifies, Descartes’ cogito argument. Why does Sartre do that? In other words, why is Sartre not entirely happy with the way Descartes develops the cogito argument? And finally, if Descartes were to respond to Sartre’s modified understanding of the cogito argument, would Descartes agree with it or not?
Question 4: In the Introduction to The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir writes, “She is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute – she is the Other.” Explain what de Beauvoir means by the statement that woman is the other. (As part of your answer you should explain what he dynamics between the One and the Other is.) Then explain what solution to the woman not being the ‘other’ she proposes.