brisk exercise temporarily raises levels ofwhite blood cells W r i t i n g

brisk exercise temporarily raises levels ofwhite blood cells W r i t i n g

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read chapter 12


Physicalactivity is one of the best ways to prevent risk of early disease anddeath. Regular activity is undertaken byonly 22 percent of American adults. Itis important to establish good exercise habits now while still young. Chapter 12 provides the student with theinformation necessary to develop an exercise program which can improve ormaintain their level of fitness throughout their lives. It is important that regular aerobic exercisebecome an integral part of our lives. The latest information from the Surgeon General as well as the benefitsof sports drinks to performance is included.


1. Describephysical fitness and the benefits of regular physical activity, includingimprovements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, bone mass, weightcontrol, stress management, mental health, and lifespan.

2. Explainthe components of an aerobic exercise program and how to determine the bestfrequency, intensity, and duration of exercise.

3. Describedifferent stretching and strength exercises designed to improve flexibility.

4. Comparethe various types and benefits of resistance exercise programs.

5. Summarizeways to prevent and treat common fitness injuries.

6. Summarizethe key components of a personal fitness program.


What is Physical Fitness?

A. It is the ability to perform moderate tovigorous physical activity on a regular basis without excessive fatigue.

B. Exercise training is the systematicperformance of exercise at a specified frequency, intensity, and duration toachieve a desired level of physical fitness.

II. Benefits of Regular Physical Activity.
A. Physical activity is any forceexerted by skeletal muscles that results in energy usage above the level usedwhen the body’s systems are at rest.

B. Improved cardiorespiratory efficiency is abenefit of exercise.

1. Exercise makes the heart muscle stronger.

2. Hypertension has been shown to be lowered byexercise.

3. HDL levels are said to be increased byexercise.

C. Improvements in bone mass (and associateddiseases) is a benefit of exercise.

1. Older adults are afflicted with osteoporosis,a loss of bone mass and increased fractures.

2. Women are more at risk because they livelonger, have lower peak bone mass, and lose estrogen after menopause resultingin accelerated loss of bone mass.

3. Activity throughout a lifetime significantlyraises long term bone mass.

D. Weight control can be maintained withexercise.

E. Exercise has other health and life spanbenefits.

1. Non-insulin dependent diabetes can be managedwith diet and exercise.

2. Exercise can enhance longevity.

3. Exercise can improve immunity todisease.

a. Brisk exercise temporarily raises levels ofwhite blood cells.

F. Exercise can improve mental health and stressmanagement.

1. Exercise burns off chemicals released duringthe stress response.

2. Exercise can improve appearance, which canimprove self-esteem.

III. Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

A.Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratorysystems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.

B.Aerobic exercise (meaning “with oxygen”) can improve cardiorespiratoryendurance.

1. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a way to measure current functional status.

a. It is usually measured with a graded exercisetest.

b. Men over 40 and women over 50 should not betested without a prior physical exam.

c. There are several methods to measure aerobiccapacity on your own such as the 1.5 mile run or 12 minute run endurance test.

C. There are several variables of aerobicactivity.

1. The American College of Sports Medicine(ACSM) recommendation is to exercise three to five days each week for about 30– 45 minutes after a warm up and then cool down.

2. Aerobic exercise must be prolonged andmoderate in intensity. Target heart rateis a way to measure intensity.

a. The formula for females is (220 – your age) x.60 and for males is (226 – your age) x .60.

b. It is not recommended to exceed 80 to 85percent of maximum heart rate.

3. A target heart rate of 70 percent of maximumis called the conversational level of exercise. If you are a beginner and, during exercise, you are so out of breaththat talking is difficult, you need to lower the intensity.

4. Exercise at higher intensities results ingreater fitness gains and can be performed by people in excellentcardiorespiratory condition.

5. Walking 2 miles briskly is a way to meet activityrecommendations.

IV. WhyFlexibility and Strength Exercise?

A. Flexibility is a measure of the range ofmotion, or the amount of movement possible, at a particular joint.

1. Improving flexibility reduces incidence andseverity of lower back problems and muscle or tendon injuries.

2. Yoga, Tai chi, and Pilates all improveflexibility and give a greater sense of well-being. They are also known to manage stress.

B. There are several different types ofstretching exercises.

1. Static stretching involves the slow, graduallengthening of a muscle or group of muscles.

a. The major goal of static stretching is tocause permanent elongation of the targeted muscle or muscle group.

b. Stretching should be done 3-5 days a week toimprove flexibility.

2. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(PNF) techniques are superior for improving flexibility but complex.

3. Ballistic stretching involves rapid contractions and isnot recommended due to high risk of injury.

C. Three major styles of exercise that includestretching include yoga, Tai chi, and Pilates.

1. Yoga focuses attention on controlledbreathing as well as the purely physical exercise. It incorporates a complex array of staticstretching exercises expressed as postures.

a. Yoga moves the spine and joints through their fullrange of motion, leading to increased flexibility, stamina, and strength aswell as a psychological sense of general well being.

b. The three most popular types of yoga include Iyengar,Asthanga, and Bikram’s yoga.

2. Tai Chi is an exercise regimen that increasesrange of motion, flexibility, and reduces muscular tension. It involves a series of positions calledforms that are performed continuously.

3. Pilates includes both flexibility andstrength training. It usesresistance

equipment and involves mat work andbreathing patterns.

D. Guidelines to designing your own stretchinginclude exercises that can be found in Figure 11.3.

E. Improving Muscular Strength and Enduranceinvolves resistance training. It usuallyinvolves the use of equipment.

F. Muscular strength is the amount of force amuscle is capable of exerting and is

measured by one repetition maximum.

G. Muscle endurance is defined as a muscle’sability to exert force repeatedly without fatiguing.

H. There are several principles for strengthdevelopment.

1. The tension principle states that the moretension you create, the greater the strength gain.

2. The overload principle states that resistancebeyond what a muscle is accustomed to will result in strength gain and growth(hypertrophy).

3. The specificity of training principle states that thespecific body system responds to the physiological demands placed upon it.

I. Women don’t develop muscle to the sameextent as men. However they will develophypertrophy with resistance training. The use of steroids is illegal and dangerous.

J. Skeletal muscles act in three different ways:(see Figure 11.5)

1. Isometric muscle action is produces forcethrough tension and muscle

contraction without movement. (See Figure 11.5)

2. Concentric Muscle action causes joint movement and aproduction of force while the muscle shortens.

3. Eccentric muscle action involves lengthening the muscle to produce force.

K. There are several methods for producingresistance:

1. Body weight resistance activities likesit-ups or push-ups.

2. Fixed resistance exercises like barbells anddumbbells.

3. Variable resistance like weight trainingmachines.

4. Accommodating resistance like a machine measuringmuscle force.

L. Strength training’s benefits includereduction in lower back pain, reduction in joint and muscle injuries, reductionin risk for osteoporosis, improved personal appearance, enhanced self-esteem,increased metabolism.

M. There are several considerations to take intoaccount when muscle training.

1. Strength training guidelines are asfollows:

a. Select at least one exercise for each musclegroup.

b. Rest periods between workouts should be 24-48hours.

V. Body Composition.

A. Body Composition is the fifth and finalcomponent of a comprehensive fitness program.

B. Differences exist between men and women.

1. Women have a higher percentage of fat mass.

2. Women have a lower percentage of fat-freemass.

C. Somatotyping is making a visual assessment of a body type.

1. Mesomorph is a muscular frame.

2. Ectomorph is a lean body.

3. Endomorph has a high body fat percentage.

VI. Fitness Injuries.

A. Overtraining is the most frequent cause ofinjury.

B. There are two basic types of injuriesstemming from fitness-related activities.

1. Overuse injuries occur because ofcumulative, day-after-day stresses placed on body parts during exercise.

2. Traumatic injuries occur suddenly andviolently, typically by accident.

C. Using proper exercise equipment can preventinjuries.

1. Appropriate footwear is essential.

a. Running shoes need the ability to absorbshock.

b. Shoes must also be flexible.

c. Cross-training shoes should not be used ifyou run more than 25 miles per week.

2. Equipment should fit properly also.

a. A tennis racquet with excessive stringtension can cause tennis elbow.

b. Eye protection is essential for many sports.

c. SNELL and ANSI approved helmets should beworn for cycling.

D. There are several different common overuseinjuries.

1. Plantar Fasciitis is an inflammation of thetissue on the bottom of your foot.

2. “Shin splints” is a general term used todescribe pain occurring in the leg between the knee and the ankle.

3. “Runner’s knee” is pain in the knee capoccurring with the downward force of the leg.

E. Treatment for injuries includes rest, ice,compression, and elevation (RICE).

F. There are three different heat-relatedillnesses.

1. Heat cramps are muscle cramps due to heat ordehydration.

2. Heat exhaustion is caused by excessive waterloss resulting from intense exercise in hot or humid weather.

3. Heat stroke occurs when body core temperaturerises and the cooling mechanism shuts down. This is a life-threateningemergency condition.

4. There is little evidence that sports drinkschange performance over water when exercising less than one hour. Drinking fluids after exercise is veryimportant.

G. Hypothermia is a potentially fatal conditionof low body core temperature.

H. Several suggestions for treating andpreventing muscle cramps includes drinking lots of fluids, sports drinks, takeplenty of calcium, warm up the muscles and do not strain them beyond theirlimit. If a cramp occurs, stretch and put pressure on the affected muscle.

VII. Planning Your Fitness Program.

A. Determining your fitness goals should be thefirst step of any fitness program.

B. Good fitness programs are designed tomaintain comprehensive fitness.

1. Cross training or alternate-day participationin two or more aerobic activities.

2. There are many different machines to improvefitness.

NAME OF THE BOOK :Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health.
Pearson, 2018.

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